Research note: Sia Spiliopoulou Åkermark is Associate Professor of International Law and Director of the Åland Islands Peace Institute. She has had the pleasure of heading the research project discussed in the present article. Many thanks go to all researchers involved in it over the years, namely Timo Koivurova, Pirjo Kleemola-Juntunen, Saila Heinikoski, Filip Holiencin and Yannick Poullie for all their hard work, support, and for fruitful and pleasant cooperation. Our discussions have been enriched by the generous input and wise questions of the Scientific Advisors of the project: Lauri Hannikainen, professor emeritus; Allan Rosas, Professor, Judge at the EU Court of Justice; Gregory Simons, associate professor/docent, Uppsala Center for Russian Studies; Kenneth Gustavsson, associate professor/docent, Åland museum; Said Mahmoudi, professor emeritus; Päivi Kaukoranta, Director General Legal Affairs and ambassador, Finnish MFA; Matthieu Chillaud, PhD, France/Estonia; Geir Ulfstein, Professor, University of Oslo, Norway; Willy Østreng, professor emeritus, director, former vice-president of the Norwegian Academy for Polar Research. Alison Bailes, guest professor and ambassador (UK) was a member of the advisory board until spring 2016.